When recording audio in Audition, there are two essential tools you'll need to successfully make a recording: a microphone and a set of headphones. There are many headsets available that incorporate headphones and a microphone, but it's also possible to use a stand-alone microphone in combination with traditional headphones. Performing a sound check will help you make sure your microphone and headphones are working properly, and that your audio is being recorded at an appropriate volume.
While you're recording your sound check, pay attention to the Levels panel at the bottom of the screen, as it will help you see if your volume is too loud or too quiet. An ideal volume level is somewhere between -20dB and -10dB, as shown in the following diagram:
When recording, you'll want to make sure that the majority of your audio stays in this range. This ensures that the audio is at a volume level that can be heard, and will also ensure your audio isn't distorted due to being too loud.
The main focus of a sound check is to make sure your audio is at a good volume level right off the bat, to avoid having to make adjustments later. Let's go ahead and perform a sound check to make sure everything is working properly — once you've recorded and played back the sound test, you can fix any issues that come up if needed.